By National Research Council, Policy and Global Affairs, Technology, and Economic Policy Board on Science, Committee on Comparative Innovation Policy: Best Practice for the 21st Century, Charles Wessner, Kenneth Flamm, Masayuki Kondo, Sadao Nagaoka
Spotting capability to innovate and commercialize new high-technology items is more and more a key for the commercial progress within the atmosphere of tighter environmental and source constraints, governments world wide have taken energetic steps to bolster their nationwide innovation structures. those steps underscore the assumption of those governments that the emerging bills and dangers linked to new possibly high-payoff applied sciences, their spillover or externality-generating results and the turning out to be worldwide festival, require nationwide R&D courses to help the suggestions through new and present high-technology organisations inside their borders. The nationwide learn Council's Board on technological know-how, know-how, and monetary coverage (STEP) has launched into a research of chosen overseas innovation courses compared to significant U.S. courses. The "21st Century Innovation structures for the USA and Japan: classes from a Decade of swap" symposium reviewed govt courses and projects to aid the advance of small- and medium-sized firms, government-university- collaboration and consortia, and the influence of the highbrow estate regime on innovation. This publication brings jointly the papers offered on the convention and gives a ancient context of the problems mentioned on the symposium.
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Additional info for 21st Century Innovation Systems for Japan and the United States: Lessons from a Decade of Change: Report of a Symposium
SOURCE: NISTEP, Science and Technology Indicators. 10 Top 25% Top 10% Top 1% Percent 9 8 7 6 5 1991 1996 2001 Year FIGURE 5 Japan’s share among most highly cited papers. SOURCE: NISTEP. Our aim is to provide an overview of how Japanese technology policy responded to the economic and technological challenges described above. It will examine Japan’s new framework of technology policymaking, government R&D programs, the R&D tax credit, technology policy toward small and medium enterprises (SMEs), and efforts to promote links between university and government labs and industry.
See Posen (1998). 3% 1 0 –1 2003 2001 1999 1997 1995 1993 1991 1989 1987 1985 1983 1981 1979 1977 1975 –2 Year FIGURE 1 GDP growth ratio. SOURCE: K. Motohashi, Empirical Analysis of IT Innovation: Has IT Changed Long-term Japanese Economic Performance? Toyokeizai, 2005. productivity did decline to some degree in the 1990s and that this decline was greater than one would expect even in years of low economic growth. The natural question concerns why productivity declined in the 1990s and several experts have proposed answers.
In 2003, Japan revised the R&D tax credit system to provide incentives that are more generous and to base it on total R&D spending rather than annual increases. The new system also included the special provision to increase the tax reduction for three years, from 2003 to 2005, as a temporary measure to counter recession. The introduction of the new system resulted in 600 billion yen of corporate income tax reduction. With the help of this new measure, and thanks largely to the recovery of the economy, private sector R&D spending has begun to recover from its long slump.
21st Century Innovation Systems for Japan and the United States: Lessons from a Decade of Change: Report of a Symposium by National Research Council, Policy and Global Affairs, Technology, and Economic Policy Board on Science, Committee on Comparative Innovation Policy: Best Practice for the 21st Century, Charles Wessner, Kenneth Flamm, Masayuki Kondo, Sadao Nagaoka